Before looking at verbs and nouns in detail, it is as well to be clear about where the stress falls on a Spanish word and when a written accent is required. This is because changes to the form of a noun or verb often require an accent to be added or removed. The stress falls:
Exceptions to either rule are marked with a written accent: comí I ate, avión aeroplane, árbol tree.
A written accent is also used on such pairs of vowels as aí, aú, to show that the í or ú constitutes a separate syllable. So caigo I fall has two syllables, with the stress on cai, but caído fallen has three syllables; similarly au in aula classroom constitutes one syllable, but aú in baúl is two syllables. This use of the accent creates words that carry a written accent even though they do not contravene the rules for stress.
The seemingly large number of tenses in Spanish becomes more manageable if you think of them in groups. The basic group consists of the five 'simple' tenses: present hablo I speak; future hablaré I shall speak; conditional hablaría I would speak; past hablé I spoke; imperfect hablaba I was speaking. Alongside these is a second group of five 'perfective' tenses, and a third group of five 'progressive' tenses, as follows:
Simple Perfective Progressive ------ ---------- ----------- Present hablo he hablado estoy hablando I speak I have spoken I am speaking Future hablaré habré hablado estaré hablando I shall speak I shall have spoken I shall be speaking Conditional hablaría habría hablado estaría hablando I would speak I would have spoken I would be speaking Past hablé hube hablado estuve hablando I spoke I had spoken I was speaking Imperfect hablaba había hablado estaba hablando I spoke I had spoken I was speaking
Simple, perfective and progressive are 'aspects'. English has the same three aspects, used in the same way as in Spanish: simple como I eat, perfective he comido I have eaten, progressive estoy comiendo I am eating. Both Spanish and English also have a combined perfective-progressive aspect, he estado comiendo I have been eating, which these materials don't include.
The perfective tenses are formed with the corresponding simple tense of haber to have followed by the past participle - so the perfective conditional consists of the conditional of haber and the past participle, the perfective past consists of the past of haber and the past participle, and so on. Similarly, the progressive tenses are formed from the equivalent part of estar to be and the present participle. These materials achieve this by replacing the main verb (the 'Headword') with haber or estar and changing the aspect to 'simple', constructing the appropriate form, then restoring the main verb to make the past or present participle.
It will be seen that there are two perfective tenses referring to prior time - the perfective past and the perfective imperfect. The perfective imperfect is the one in everyday use. The perfective past is used only in particular constructions in literary Spanish.
The tenses shown above are those of the 'indicative mood': the two other moods are the 'subjunctive' and the 'imperative', and each of them has a set of tenses. But life is not as grim as this would suggest, because the subjunctive has only two tenses as against five in the indicative, and the imperative has only one tense and no perfective aspect:
Simple Perfective Progressive ------ ---------- ----------- Subjunctive Present hable haya hablado esté hablando I should speak I should have spoken I should be speaking Subjunctive Past hablara hubiera hablado estuviera hablando I should speak I should have spoken I should be speaking Imperative Present habla! - está hablando! Speak! Be speaking!
To be strictly accurate one should also mention the subjunctive future, but it is so rare that it can safely be ignored. And there are two ways of forming the subjunctive past: hablara, estuviera, hubiera as above, and the alternative hablase, estuviese, hubiese. The two forms are exactly equivalent.
The indicative mood is used to make statements, the subjunctive to express 'might-have-beens' or events existing only in the mind of the speaker, and the imperative to give instructions. English has the same three moods: 'The sun's shining' (indicative), 'I wish the sun were shining' ('were', subjunctive), 'Shine!' (imperative, instruction to the sun).
In these materials, subjunctives are shown with 'would' or 'should' in English. This is a rough-and-ready solution, serving mainly as a reminder that a form other than the indicative is called for. The English translation of a Spanish subjunctive depends very much on the context, there being no single version that will serve in all cases.
Forming the imperative is a messy business, because it interleaves two different underlying forms. The 2nd singular and plural are made from a form based on the indicative, but the 1st plural and the 3rd singular and plural are based on the subjunctive. (There is no 1st singular). caber, which has strikingly different indicative and subjunctive stems, illustrates the point well: cabe quepa quepamos cabed quepan.
The subjunctive-based forms are identical with the subjunctive except when an object pronoun is present, as is the case with reflexive verbs. The pronoun goes before the verb in the subjunctive, but after it in the imperative: quiere que nos durmamos she wants us to go to sleep (subjunctive), but durmámonos! let's go to sleep (imperative). These materials handle this by substituting the subjunctive mood whenever a non-2nd person imperative is being formed, then restoring the imperative mood before adding any object pronouns.
The 3rd-person imperative does not express a wish about a third party; it is used to give an instruction to someone one is talking to and whom one would address as Usted. The English equivalent let him do x does not reflect this usage, but was chosen because it illustrates the 3rd-person form.
A problem for learners of Spanish is that different writers use different names for the same tense. This is confusing if - as is likely to be the case - you use more than one reference-work. So it may be helpful to bear the following points in mind:
These materials give each form a three-word name denoting its aspect, mood and tense ('simple indicative past', 'perfective indicative present'). These names are clumsy, but logical and unambiguous.
Here are some other variations of terminology:
Reflexive verbs are those which have a direct-object pronoun, referring back to the subject. The pronoun is attached to the end of the infinitive, the present participle and the imperative, but placed in front of the verb in all other tenses: lavarse, estoy lavándome, lavémonos! but me he lavado, me lavé etc. Adding the pronoun to the present participle or the imperative means that an accent is required to preserve the stress.
A defective verb is one which lacks certain forms - for example the weather-words tronar thunder, helar freeze, etc., which have only 3rd-person forms. The only other defective verb of any importance is soler to habitually do.
Spanish has six persons in each tense, three singular and three plural ('I', 'you', 'he/she/it' and 'we', 'you', 'they' in English). In Spanish the subject pronouns are optional, and these materials don't use them.
People one knows well are addressed using the 2nd-person form, either singular or plural, of the verb; people one doesn't know well are addressed with the 3rd-person form of the verb (singular or plural). The 2nd-person forms are sometimes known as the 'tu' form and the 3rd-person forms as the 'Usted' form. If you omit the subject pronoun and are talking to someone you don't know well, then he/she/it does x and you do x are identical in Spanish.
These materials will not ask you to produce the 'Usted' form of a verb under that name. They will however ask you to produce 3rd-person forms, which are the same thing. The English equivalent is given as 'he/she/it' in order to make it clear that they are 3rd-person forms, but they also mean 'you'.
Spanish verbs are normally classified into three conjugations according to the ending of the infinitive. Generally speaking, each conjugation has its own set of endings for each tense. However, there is a class of 30 or so frequently-occuring words which have an irregular past stem and also take a different set of endings in the past. These materials therefore assign these verbs, for the past tense only, to an 'irregular past' conjugation.
It is useful to think of the Spanish verb as having a different stem for each group of tenses. This simplifies many apparent irregularities. For example, the future and conditional for any given verb are always formed on the same stem. By calling this the future stem, these materials reduce the future and conditional of decir (for example) from 12 irregular forms (6 persons in 2 tenses) to one, the irregular future stem dir.
These materials recognise a present indicative stem, a present subjunctive stem, a future stem, a past stem, and an imperfect stem. The present subjunctive stem simplifies the presentation of verbs like tener and caer. The past stem removes many anomalies - for example, all the subjunctive pasts and all the 'irregular past' verbs have standard endings on this stem. The imperfect stem simplifies the imperfect of ver.
Spanish verbs look bizarre because they can change in three places at once: the vowel in the stem (Stem Changes), the consonant at the end of the stem (Spelling Changes), and the ending:
s-e-gu-ir s-i-g--o s-e-gu-imos s-i-g--amos s-i-gu-ió
In this example, the vowel in the stem varies between e and i, and the consonant at the end of the stem varies between g and gu, and the ending is ir, o, imos, amos or ió. But although the result looks complicated, the underlying mechanisms are not difficult to understand.
Some verbs - not all - change the vowel in their stem in certain persons and tenses. Knowing whether a verb is stem- changing or not is like knowing the gender of a noun - you have to learn it with the verb. About 80 of the 400 verbs in these materials are stem-changing. These materials identify them by the StemChanging flag in their dictionary.
Stem-changing verbs each fall into one of a few patterns:
o - ue: contar cuento 'tell' e - ie: cerrar cierro 'close' o - ue - u: dormir duermo durmió 'sleep' e - ie - i: sentir siento sintió 'feel' e - i - i: pedir pido pidió 'ask'
Verbs with two different stem-vowels (those following the first two patterns above) belong to Conjugations One and Two. Verbs with three different stem-vowels belong only to Conjugation Three.
For reasons deeply buried in phonetic theory, these materials
call the first stem (the one with o or e)
the simple stem, the second stem (with ue or ie or
i) the open-vowel stem, and the third stem (with u
or i) the closed-vowel stem. In verbs with the pattern
e-i-i, the open-vowel stem and the closed-vowel stem
are of course the same. These materials distinguish those
where the open-vowel stem is ie (like sentir) from
those where the open-vowel stem is i (like pedir)
by a ChangeVowel entry in their dictionary.
One stem-changing verb has u in its simple stem (jugar - juego), and one has i (adquirir - adquiero). In oler - huelo and errar - yerro, the initial ue and ie arising from the stem-change are modified to hue and ye respectively. This is purely a spelling convention - all Spanish words that would otherwise begin with ue or ie are spelt like this.
The changed stems are used only in the present (indicative and subjunctive), the past (indicative and subjunctive), and the present participle.
The present indicative stem consists of the open-vowel stem in all persons except the 1st and 2nd plural, where it consists of the simple stem. The present subjunctive stem is similar, except that verbs having a closed-vowel stem use that in the 1st and 2nd plural:
Indicative: muero mueres muere morimos morís mueren Subjunctive: muera mueras muera muramos murís mueran
The past stem consists of the simple stem in the indicative, except that verbs having a closed-vowel stem use it in the 3rd singular and 3rd plural. In the subjunctive, verbs with a closed- vowel stem use it in all persons:
Indicative: morí moriste murió morimos moristeis murieron Subjunctive: muriera murieras muriera muriéramos murierais murieran
The present participle uses the simple stem, or the closed- vowel stem in those verbs which have it: contando, cerrando, durmiendo, sintiendo, pidiendo.
The stem of coger sometimes ends with g and sometimes with j:
Indicative Present: cojo coges coge cogemos cogís cogen Subjunctive Present: coja cojas coja cojamos cojáis cojan
The reason lies in the pronunciation. The stem is always
/kokh/, rhyming with Scottish 'loch' or
German 'doch'. The sound
/kh/ is spelt with g
before a front vowel (e or i), but with j
before a back vowel (a, o or u). So if the
vowel of the ending changes from front vowel to back vowel or
vice versa - as it does between the indicative and the
subjunctive - the preceding letter must also change to keep the
pronunciation the same.
Since all the present subjunctives use the 'wrong' vowel (ar verbs have e, and er and ir verbs have a), the subjunctive is especially prone to these changes. But they occur in other tenses too - notably the irregular-past verbs, where hacer, for example, has hizo in the 3rd singular indicative past. Here are all the changes tabulated, with examples:
Sound Before a Front Vowel Before a Back Vowel ----- -------------------- ------------------- /k/ que qui ataque ca co cu atacar /g/ gue gui seguir ga go gu sigo /kh/ ge gi coger ja jo ju cojamos /gw/ güe güi averigüe gua guo averiguar /th/ ce ci cocer za zo zu cozamos
/kw/, which is always spelt cu (evacuar, evacue).
/kh/, even before a front vowel.
Here for reference are the endings for all conjugations in all moods and tenses:
Indic. Pres. One o as a amos áis an Indic. Pres. Two o es e emos éis en Indic. Pres. Three o es e imos ís en Indic. Fut. All é ás á emos éis án Indic. Cond. All ía ías ía íamos íais ían Indic. Past One é aste ó amos asteis aron Indic. Past Two&Three í iste ió imos isteis ieron Indic. Past Irreg e iste o imos isteis ieron Indic. Impf. One aba abas aba ábamos abais an Indic. Impf. Two&Three ía ías ía íamos íais ían Subj. Pres. One e es e emos éis en Subj. Pres. Two&Three a as a amos áis an Subj. Past1 One ara aras ara áramos areis aran Subj. Past1 Two&Three iera ieras iera iéramos ierais ieran Subj. Past2 One ase ases ase ásemos aseis asen Subj. Past2 Two&Three iese ieses iese iésemos ieseis iesen
Notice the following:
If a verb-stem ends in i or u, the stress may either stay on the i or u or move to the previous syllable; if it stays on the i or u, an accent is required. So situar, for example, gives sitúo, but evacuar gives evacuo. You cannot predict how a given verb will behave - you have to learn this feature with the verb. These materials flag these verbs with the TakesAccent flag in their dictionary.
Verbs ending in uir, and also oír hear, add y between the stem and the ending if the ending does not begin with i or y: huyo, construyo.
Various changes are made when an ending beginning with i is added to a verb:
When a reflexive pronoun is added to the end of the imperative, various adjustments must be made:
Nouns in Spanish are much less complicated than verbs. They have only two forms: singular and plural. The overwhelming majority form their plural in one of two ways: those ending a vowel add s, and those ending a consonant add es. The remainder are plural-only words such as las afueras outskirts, words ending in s that don't change in the plural such as abrebotellas bottle-opener, or foreign words that add s after a consonant (yogur - yogurs). Some minor complexities arise with accents, spelling changes, agreement of qualifiers, and gender.
Changes to the written accent arise with words that add es because the stress stays on the same syllable and the es constitutes an extra syllable. Only words ending in n or s are affected.
Words ending in n or s are normally stressed on the penultimate. Those that carry an accent on the last syllable will lose it in the plural, because the stressed syllable has now become the penultimate: avión - aviones. Likewise those that have no accent on the penultimate in the singular will require one in the plural, because the stress is no longer on the penultimate: crimen - crímenes.
Words ending in a consonant other than n or s, by contrast, are normally stressed on the last syllable. Adding es makes the stressed syllable into the penultimate syllable and also turns the word into one which ends in s, so no written accent is required: pared - paredes. If an accent is present on a word of this type in the singular, its purpose must be to show that the stress is not on the last syllable, so the accent will remain in the plural: árbol - árboles. (In baúl - baúles and país - países the accent is needed to separate the diphthong, and so is retained in the plural.)
Spelling changes arise with words whose last letter is z, which are spelt ces in the plural to preserve the pronunciation. Similarly the only two words whose last letter is c in the singular, biftec and bistec, change the c to ques in the plural. g would also require a spelling change, but no nouns have this as the last letter.
Where a noun is followed by a qualifier, as with coche comedor or Guardia Civil, the qualifier may or may not change in the plural. If the qualifier is itself a noun, it doesn't change: coches comedor, huevos ranchero. But if the qualifier is an adjective it changes: Guardias Civiles.
The determiner takes its gender from the noun, so you need to know the gender of the noun. In some cases the gender is predictable - all words ending in ión, for example, are feminine. Where the gender is not predictable, these materials use a GenderFlag in the dictionary. Some nouns change gender when they refer to persons of different sexes - el ciclista, la ciclista, for example - but this is not always true, and it is easier to regard these as two different nouns. The only complication lies in a handful of feminine words, all beginning with a or ha and having the stress on the first syllable, that take the masculine forms of el and un in the singular (el agua, un hambre), but the feminine form in the plural and the feminine form of any other determiner, whether singular or plural.
It is not always clear in English whether a given noun actually has a plural form: information exists, but does informations? The converse also applies: congratulations exists, but congratulation perhaps not. Similar questions arise in Spanish. Moreover Spanish and English do not march in step: sus señas her address is plural in Spanish with no singular, but singular in English.
Being concerned with form rather than meaning, these materials take a robustly tolerant line, and mark very few singulars or plurals as nonexistent, whether in Spanish or English. They allow plurals of countries, for example: two Scotlands. The results may sometimes be thought of as going beyond normal usage, but their purpose is always to illustrate the form.