Your first 600 words - in any language!
These are the first words you need to learn, for whatever language. They have been chosen for their everyday usefulness.
EXPRESSIONS OF POLITENESS (about 50 expressions)
- 'Yes' and 'no': yes, no, absolutely, no way, exactly.
- Question words: when? where? how? how much? how many? why? what? who? which? whose?
- Apologising: excuse me, sorry to interrupt, well now, I'm afraid so, I'm afraid not.
- Meeting and parting: good morning, good afternoon, good evening, hello, goodbye, cheers, see you later, pleased to meet you, nice to have met.
- Interjections: please, thank you, don't mention it, sorry, it'll be done, I agree, congratulations, thank heavens, nonsense.
NOUNS (about 120 words)
- Time: morning, afternoon, evening, night; Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday; spring, summer, autumn, winter; time, occasion, minute, half-hour, hour, day, week, month, year.
- People: family, relative, mother, father, son, daughter, sister, brother, husband, wife; colleague, friend, boyfriend, girlfriend; people, person, human being, man, woman, lady, gentleman, boy, girl, child.
- Objects: address, bag, book, car, clothes, key, letter (=to post), light (=lamp), money, name, newspaper, pen, pencil, picture, suitcase, thing, ticket.
- Places: place, world, country, town, street, road, school, shop, house, apartment, room, ground; Britain, name of the foreign country, British town-names, foreign town-names.
- Abstract: accident, beginning, change, colour, damage, fun, half, help, joke, journey, language, English, name of the foreign language, letter (of alphabet), life, love, mistake, news, page, pain, part, question, reason, sort, surprise, way (=method), weather, work.
- Other: hand, foot, head, eye, mouth, voice; the left, the right; the top, the bottom, the side; air, water, sun, bread, food, paper, noise.
PREPOSITIONS (about 40 words)
- General: of, to, at, for, from, in, on.
- Logical: about, according-to, except, like, against, with, without, by, despite, instead of.
- Space: into, out of, outside, towards, away from, behind, in front of, beside, next to, between, above, on top of, below, under, underneath, near to, a long way from, through.
- Time: after, ago, before, during, since, until.
DETERMINERS (about 80 words)
- Articles and numbers: a, the; nos. 0--20; nos. 30--100; nos. 200--1000; last, next, 1st--12th.
- Demonstrative: this, that.
- Possessive: my, your, his, her, its, our, their.
- Quantifiers: all, some, no, any, many, much, more, less, a few, several, whole, a little, a lot of.
- Comparators: both, neither, each, every, other, another, same, different, such.
ADJECTIVES (about 80 words)
- Colour: black, blue, green, red, white, yellow.
- Evaluative: bad, good, terrible; important, urgent, necessary; possible, impossible; right, wrong, true.
- General: big, little, small, heavy; high, low; hot, cold, warm; easy, difficult; cheap, expensive; clean, dirty; beautiful, funny (=comical), funny (=odd), usual, common (=shared), nice, pretty, wonderful; boring, interesting, dangerous, safe; short, tall, long; new, old; calm, clear, dry; fast, slow; finished, free, full, light (=not dark), open, quiet, ready, strong.
- Personal: afraid, alone, angry, certain, cheerful, dead, famous, glad, happy, ill, kind, married, pleased, sorry, stupid, surprised, tired, well, worried, young.
VERBS (about 100 words)
- arrive, ask, be, be able to, become, begin, believe, borrow, bring, buy, can, change, check, collect, come, continue, cry, do, drop, eat, fall, feel, find, finish, forget, give, going to, have, have to, hear, help, hold, hope, hurt (oneself), hurt (someone else), keep, know, laugh, learn, leave, lend, let (=allow), lie down, like, listen, live (=be alive), live (=reside), look (at), look for, lose, love, make, may (=permission), may (=possibility), mean, meet, must, need, obtain, open, ought to, pay, play, put, read, remember, say, see, sell, send, should, show, shut, sing, sleep, speak, stand, stay, stop, suggest, take, talk, teach, think, travel, try, understand, use, used to, wait for, walk, want, watch, will, work (=operate), work (=toil), worry, would, write.
PRONOUNS (about 40 words)
- Personal: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, one; myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
- Possessive: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs.
- Demonstrative: this, that.
- Universal: everyone, everybody, everything, each, both, all, one, another.
- Indefinite: someone, somebody, something, some, a few, a little, more, less; anyone, anybody, anything, any, either, much, many.
- Negative: no-one, nobody, nothing, none, neither.
ADVERBS (about 60 words)
- Place: here, there, above, over, below, in front, behind, nearby, a long way away, inside, outside, to the right, to the left, somewhere, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, home, upstairs, downstairs.
- Time: now, soon, immediately, quickly, finally, again, once, for a long time, today, generally, sometimes, always, often, before, after, early, late, never, not yet, still, already, then (=at that time), then (=next), yesterday, tomorrow, tonight.
- Quantifiers: a little, about (=approximately), almost, at least, completely, very, enough, exactly, just, not, too much, more, less.
- Manner: also, especially, gradually, of course, only, otherwise, perhaps, probably, quite, so, then (=therefore), too (=also), unfortunately, very much, well.
CONJUNCTIONS (about 30 words)
- Co-ordinating: and, but, or; as, than, like.
- Time & Place: when, while, before, after, since (=time), until; where.
- Manner & Logic: how, why, because, since (=because), although, if; what, who, whom, whose, which, that.